پاتولوژی دیجیتال چیست؟
پاتولوژی دیجیتال شامل جمع آوری، مدیریت، اشتراک و تفسیر اطلاعات آسیب شناسی (از جمله اسلایدها و دادهها) در یک محیط دیجیتالی است.
وقتی اسلایدهای توسط دستگاه اسکن می شوند، اسلایدهای دیجیتال ایجاد می شوند تا یک تصویر دیجیتالی با وضوح بالا داشته باشند و این تصویر می تواند در صفحه کامپیوتر یا تلفن همراه مشاهده شود.
با استفاده از اسکنرهای پاتولوژی دیجیتال با توان عملیاتی بالا، می توان کل اسلاید شیشه ای را زیر نور معمولی و یا فلورسنت با یک بزرگنمایی قابل مقایسه با میکروسکوپ گرفت.
اسلایدهای دیجیتال را می توان با استفاده از برنامه های تخصصی نرم افزار پاتولوژی دیجیتال از طریق شبکه اینترنت یا اینترانت به اشتراک گذاشت.
همچنین می توان از ابزارهای تجزیه و تحلیل تصویر خودکار برای کمک به تفسیر و تعیین کمیت بیان نشانگر زیستی در بخش های بافتی استفاده کرد.
تاریخچه پاتولوژی دیجیتال به بیش از ۱۰۰ سال پیش برمی گردد، زمانی که از تجهیزات تخصصی برای ضبط تصاویر میکروسکوپ بر روی صفحات عکاسی استفاده شد.
مفهوم تله پاتولوژی (انتقال تصاویر میکروسکوپ از راه دور) نزدیک به ۵۰ سال است که وجود دارد. با این حال، در دهه گذشته پاتولوژی شروع به تحول دیجیتالی واقعی نمود و از آنالوگ به یک محیط الکترونیکی وارد می شود.
پیشرفت سریع فناوری تصویر برداری از کل اسلایدها WSI ، همراه با پیشرفت در برنامههای نرم افزاری، رابط LIS / LIMS و شبکه های پرسرعت، امکان ادغام کامل پاتولوژی دیجیتال در گردش کار پاتولوژی را فراهم کرده است.
پاتولوژی دیجیتالی پاتولوژیست ها را قادر می سازد تا به سرعت و از راه دور و با کیفیت بالا، موارد را ارزیابی کنند، بنابراین کارایی و بهره وری را بهبود می بخشد.
آینده پاتولوژی دیجیتال می تواند سرانجام شامل تحقیقات پیشرفته، تفسیر، تشخیص به کمک کامپیوترهای پزشکی و شخصی باشد.
Sherri’ Heffner, CT(ASCP), has held clinical and research laboratory positions at private and academic institutions and sales/marketing positions with leading laboratory and technology companies, including Aperio.
Dr. Colgan has over a decade of experience in the digital pathology sector and is focused on how this new and disruptive technology can be leveraged to provide real benefits in both the healthcare and research domains. Prior to working with Leica Biosystems, she came from a research background with a BSc in Biotechnology and a PhD in Vascular Biology from Dublin City University, Ireland.
Colin Doolan has over ten years' experience working with Digital Pathology software solutions for Education, Research and Healthcare markets. He received his BSc in Biotechnology from Dublin City University, Ireland.
Table of Contents
Digital pathology incorporates the acquisition, management, sharing and interpretation of pathology information — including slides and data — in a digital environment. Digital slides are created when glass slides are captured with a scanning device, to provide a high-resolution digital image that can be viewed on a computer screen or mobile device.
Utilizing high-throughput, automated digital pathology scanners, it is possible to capture an entire glass slide, under bright field or fluorescent conditions, at a magnification comparable to a microscope. Digital slides can be shared over networks using specialized digital pathology software applications. Automated image analysis tools can also be applied to assist in the interpretation and quantification of biomarker expression within tissue sections.
The history of digital pathology goes back over 100 years, when specialized equipment was first used to capture images from a microscope onto photographic plates. The concept of telepathology — transmitting microscope images between remote locations — has been around for nearly 50 years. However, it is in the past decade that pathology has begun to undergo a true digital transformation, moving away from analog into an electronic environment.
The rapid progress of whole slide imaging (WSI) technology, along with advances in software applications, LIS / LIMS interfacing, and high-speed networking, have made it possible to fully integrate digital pathology into pathology workflows.
Digital pathology enables pathologists to engage, evaluate, and collaborate rapidly and remotely, with transparency and consistency, thus improving efficiency and productivity. The future of digital pathology could eventually encompass enhanced translational research, computer aided diagnosis (CAD) and personalized medicine.
Glass slides aren’t going anywhere, and for good reason. Pathology starts with a collected tissue. Glass slides are necessary, even if they are later transferred to a digital scan. But today’s pathology goes beyond tissue or scans. It’s all about improving quality, productivity and more.
Consider the way today’s pathology is changing:
Today’s pathology needs new approaches. And when pathologists stop short of adopting digital pathology fully, they miss out on the benefits that cannot be achieved with glass slides.
Digital pathology offers benefits not easily achieved with glass slides alone. Take a look at the many advantages of digital pathology versus microscopy alone.
Digital pathology can improve quality in meaningful ways:
One of the biggest benefits of digital pathology is the many ways it improves productivity in the short and long term:
Reduced Turnaround Times:
“Glass slides work fine” is often a way of saying that pathologists can’t justify the investment in digital solutions. But often they don’t consider some of the long-term cost benefits of digitalization, such as:
Barriers to Adoption of Digital Pathology
“There’s nothing wrong with the microscope.”
“Our Information Systems won’t integrate with other technology.”
“Change is hard.”
These are a few of the concerns pathologists have about digital pathology. But as they learn more, pathologists are finding that their apprehension about going digital is holding them back from reaping significant benefits. They are also discovering that old methods can’t compete against today’s digital solutions.
And even when pathologists realize that digital methods offer increased speed, accuracy, efficiency and collaboration, the evolution can seem daunting.
As industry leaders with the most widely adopted digital pathology solution, we know the challenges of full adoption.
The process of embracing digital pathology can transform an organization.So, it is important to know the steps and how to get started.
|1. Champion digital pathology||
|2. Define needs and goals||
|3. Specify infrastructure and Laboratory Information Systems (LIS) needs||
|4. Build workflow||
|5. Configuration and training||
|7. Analyze and expand applications||
Digital pathology is increasingly used by large biopharmaceuticals and top clinical research organizations (CROs) to streamline drug development processes in discovery, pre-clinical and clinical trials.
Particular opportunity exists for the potential future use of digital pathology for quantitative analysis of emerging companion diagnostics and novel theranostics. This opportunity may become especially relevant with the advent of assays which are difficult to discern with the human eye, such as multiplex, or markers which exhibit diffuse staining characteristics across multiple cellular compartments of which, for example, only one may be clinically relevant.
The increasing complexity of such assays is driving the development of digital pathology solutions with advanced high-throughput image capture (brightfield, fluorescent or multispectral) coupled with pattern recognition to morphologically identify relevant tissue types and individual cellular compartments followed by the ability to quantify (IHC) intensity of staining.
This is leading to the advent of digital pathology systems that can offer a clinically relevant diagnostic or prognostic score by comparing sample analysis output against a standard curve derived from clinical data. Indeed, much of the untapped potential of digital pathology may be in the potential ability to generate diagnostic or prognostic scores by combining IHC data and images with that of other modalities such as FACS or MALDI-TOF, in an effort to achieve more discrete patient stratification into clinically relevant groups. Rather than replacing IHC, new molecular tests and the integration of digital pathology may offer complementary diagnostic tools for the future.
The education sector was one of the earliest adopters of digital pathology, employing it throughout the full spectrum of histopathology learning from undergraduate and post graduate education through to continuous professional development (CPD) and external quality assurance (EQA).
Traditional education using light microscopes and glass slides has many challenges, including access to slides and variable course content, which can be overcome with the use of digital pathology. These include:
Educators can annotate significant regions of interest, right down to the cellular and sub-cellular level, which cannot be done readily with glass slides (Figure 7). And with specialized digital pathology educational software applications, questions and tutorials can be embedded into the digital slides, providing contextual information and direct links to tissue or cellular features referenced in the questions.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
The clinical use claims described in the information supplied have not been cleared or approved by the U.S. FDA or are not available in the United States.
This reference document is presented as a service to health care professionals by Leica Biosystems and has been compiled from available literature. Although every effort has been made to report faithfully the information, Leica Biosystems cannot be held responsible for the correctness. This document is not intended to be, and should not be construed as medical advice. For any use, the product information guides, inserts and operation manuals of the various drugs and devices should be consulted. Leica Biosystems and the editors disclaim any liability arising directly or indirectly from the use of drugs, devices, techniques or procedures described in this reference document.